Chemical Bonding and Its Types

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What is chemical bonding?

Chemical bonding is the connection occurring between the atoms of a molecule. These chemical bonds include ionic bonds, covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and the London dispersion forces.

Types of chemical bonding

Ionic Bonding –

In this type of chemical bonding, transfer of valence electrons takes place between the atoms and generation of two charged (oppositely) ions. It releases electrons to become positively charged ion (cation). The nonmetals accept electrons to become negatively charged ion (anion). The electron donor is metal, whereas the electron acceptor is a nonmetal.

Process of ionic bonding –

There are a few electrons present in the outer- most shell of metals, and therefore, it donates them to satisfy octet rule as well as to achieve noble gas configuration. The octet rule can be satisfied by accepting or giving more than one electron. The number of electrons received or donated is represented by the charge of cation or anion. The net charge of the compounds with ionic chemical bonding must always be zero.

Covalent bonding –

In this type of chemical bonding, the electrons are shared between atoms. It occurs between any two atoms of the same element or any two elements which are close to each other on the periodic table. Generally, the bond takes place between nonmetals, but it can be seen in metals and nonmetals rarely.

Covalent bonding mostly occurs if atoms have same electronegativities. If two atoms have the same affinity for electrons, and none of them has a tendency to donate them, they achieve octet configuration by sharing electrons and become more stable.

Hydrogen bonding –

This type of chemical bonding is obtained by oppositely charged areas of covalent bond hydrogen atoms. It is a weak type of bond which forms a dipole-dipole attraction. Hydrogen bonding is weaker than ionic and covalent bonding.

Example: Consider NH3 (ammonia)

Hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and nitrogen atom of another molecule. The bond formed is fragile as nitrogen has one lone electron pair.

Strongest and Weakest Bonds

  • The strongest chemical bond is ionic bonding
  • The second strongest chemical bond is covalent bonding.
  • The weakest chemical bond is hydrogen bonding.